Sweden: Opener

Hello everyone. My name is Matthias and I will be your expedition leader for our inaugural Sweden brown bear project.

Matthias Hammer

Our expedition scientists is Dr. Andrea Friebe of our Swedish partner organisation Björn & Vildmark (bear & wilderness).

Dr. Andrea Friebe

And the most important person on the expedition will be our cook, Elfie Weber 😉

Elfie Weber

Elfie and I are packing up as we speak and will travel from Germany to Sweden by car starting tomorrow. We will then meet Andrea at our expedition base and start to prepare everything for the expedition. Once Elfie and I have arrived in Sweden, I will send you another update (and my local phone number too for emergencies).

We hope your preparations are going well too and wish you safe travels. We look forward to meeting you all on Monday.

Tien Shan: Opener

My name is Malika Fettak and I will be leading the first two groups of this year’s snow leopard expedition in the Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan.

Malika Fettak

I am looking forward to returning to Bishkek, the mountains and all the lovely people we will work with. Our partner on the ground is NABU Kyrgyzstan and more specifically the ‘Grupa Bars’, a four-person snow leopard patrol who will support us in the field in groups of two.

Dr . Tytar (right) and two members of the Grupa Bars

Dr. Volodymyr Tytar will be the scientist on this expedition. Originally from the Ukraine, he has been working on snow leopard research in different locations for decades and has been involved in our Tien Shan project from the very beginning back in 2014.

Dr. Tytar

Groups 3 & 4 will also meet Amadeus DeKastle as group leader who will take over from me after the first half. Over the next week Amadeus & I will prepare the equipment & paperwork, set up camp in the mountains, do the shopping, have meetings and briefings with helpers, partners and staff.

Amadeus DeKastle (c) Noel van Bemmel

I am about to arrive in Bishkek and meet Amadeus and Volodya. As we meet, here’s some admin for group 1: Please note that the meeting point at 8:00 on Monday morning remains at the Futuro Hotel as per the description in the dossier. From there we will drive in convoy (four cars) out of the city and into the mountains. We’ll need a couple of drivers to volunteer to drive one of the vehicles after a basic introduction to the (automatic) cars (a comprehensive off-road driving course will be part of the training at camp.) Please have a think about it already so that we can sort it out quickly when we meet.

I hope your preparations are going well. I’ll be in touch again soon from Bishkek. Once I’ve purchased a local SIM card I’ll share my local mobile number with you (for emergencies only).

That’s it for now, best wishes


Costa Rica: Record numbers of nests and eggs

The final days of the turtle conservation project unfolded and excitement filled the air. One night, our citizen scientists saw a group of over ten coast guard officers on the beach and later word came that the coast guard arrested two poachers. This is great news as our recent annual reports have made it clear that increased law enforcement on the beach would be a very positive step forward in turtle conservation. It seems our voice is being heard!

The following night, no poachers were seen on the beach patrols and turtle conservation teams recovered a record six clutches of turtle eggs. And the score got better when we discovered that poachers also got zero nests that night.

I was in the hatchery on the record night and over and over again, teams walked in carrying bags of eggs. My fellow hatchery attendant and I struggled to keep up with digging new nests and burying eggs. Once we were digging two nests at the same time, the research assistant counted her clutch of eggs in German while I counted mine in English, so we wouldn’t confuse each other. We hit a record number of eggs in one clutch that night: 120! That was twice the size of the next clutch that came in. The expeditioners carrying the record clutch of eggs had to split their heavy load into two bags so they could manage carrying them 5 km from where the turtle had nested: at the very end of the beach! We teamed up to dig the new nest for this large brood with suggestions from the local guide who led the crew. “Make it really deep and wide” Oscar advised, so it could hold all 120 viable eggs in addition to the 43 yolkless eggs that were part of the clutch. It will be an exciting day when this nest hatches in a couple of months, hopefully a large number of hatchlings will make it safely to the sea.

Our efforts this week really have paid off, we can feel proud of our success in reaching the turtles to retrieve the eggs before poachers. “You can tell what a direct difference the citizen scientsts are making on the project and that is very important to me”, said expeditioner Jilly.

All in all our expedition saved 25 clutches of leatherback turtle eggs, totaling close to 2,500 eggs. We patrolled the beachers for a total of 84 hours and were on shifts in the hatcher for 42 hours. During our week of patrols, only nine nests were poached, meaning that our success rate was 65%. Without the presence of our local partner LAST and our active conservation action of beach patrols and hatchery duty, probably 100% of the nests would be poached or otherwise lost. I think these figures speak for themselves in terms of the important role that citizen science plays in protecting the wildlife of our beautiful, beleagured planet.

This year we had very high nesting activity compared to last year, so both more nests were saved, and more nests were poached, compared to the previous year. This year has higher ocean and air temperatures and is considered an El Niño year, which often corresponds with higher numbers of turtles nesting on the beaches. The hatchery now protects over 10,000 eggs with more arriving every day. We consider ourselves to be fortunate to have been in Costa Rica during a peak turtle nesting year, right at the height of the nesting season. “The chance to see the leatherback turtles and to get up close and watch them lay their eggs was a once in a lifetime experience I will always treasure”, says expeditioner Cynthia.

We had more great news when Fabian, the lead scientist, announced that the first nest had hatched. Since we were all away on duty when it happened, we excitedly huddled around the research assistant’s cell phones to watch videos of the hatchlings flopping down the sandy beach, their front flippers disproportionality larger than their tiny bodies, like puppies with big feet who are destined to be huge. We were delighted to hear that 67 made it to the ocean and we loved seeing their tiny tracks on the beach.

It has been a joy to travel with such a dedicated group of expeditioners. Not only did we save turtle eggs galore, but we protected the hatchery, cleaned trash from beaches that turtles might confuse with their jellyfish prey, made baskets to protect the turtle hatchlings in the hatchery, and  had a fun rainforest canal boat adventure to see three species of monkey, sloths, birds and a caiman crocodile. We felt like a family by the end of the trip, tired from late nights and long beach hikes, but so proud to have made a difference for the leatherback turtles of Costa Rica.

Thank you to the whole expedition team and our local partner staff from LAST. You citizen scientists could have gone on an ordinary beach holiday, but instead you came on a much more important beach project. We could not have had the success we had without you, nor without LAST. Thank you again and I think we can all be proud of what we have achieved.

Expedition leader

Costa Rica: Ancient ritual

All day our group of citizen scientists waits patiently for the most exciting part of the day to come after sunset. It’s the reason we came to Costa Rica: to walk on night time beach patrols to find nesting giant leatherback and other sea turtles. We feel a great sense of purpose making sure we find the turtles in order to relocate their eggs to a guarded hatchery to save them from poachers who also patrol these same beaches. We have saved turtle nests every night except our first.

Working together with our local partner Latin American Sea Turtles, the Biosphere Expeditions team has 7 km of beach to patrol each night. The earliest night patrols may start just after dark at 19:30 and the last group leaves closer to midnight. To prepare for these 4 hour, 10 km night-walks, each person dresses in dark trousers and a dark shirt to stay invisible to the turtles. Closed-toed shoes protect feet from logs and rocks on the dark beach. Other gear includes a backpack to carry water for the trek and a red-light headlamp for conducting the data collection around the turtle. And of course a pack with data recording sheets, small metal number tags and tiny electronic tags, similar to the ones found used on domestic pets. By reading these tags it can be determined if a turtle is returning to the same area to nest multiple times in the same season or in subsequent years.

Leatherbacks are huge and you can feel the ground vibrating when they thump down their 75 cm flippers to drag their 180 cm long body over the sand. We watch for 15 minutes as the turtle seems to be investigating the dark beach for the best place to dig her nest. Two human figures venture towards us and we’re happy to see it’s the coast guard, who are patrolling the beach to catch poachers. We stop them and point out the turtle and they stand by and marvel at her size, which is briefly illuminated by flashes of lightening.

Soon sand is flying away from the turtle as she flings her flippers to remove the surface sand to get to the perfect sand to dig the nest cavity. We stand back and wait for the moment to approach. She starts gently digging down into the sand with her hind flippers and we kneel behind her with our red headlamps on. Fifteen minutes later we insert a large, clear, thick plastic bag into the hole in the sand. Cynthia and I hold the bag open beneath the gentle soft hind flippers as the turtle drops large white eggs the size of pool balls into the bag, one or two at a time. The turtle smells a bit like fish, and she is quiet and still, just flexing her short tail every few seconds to drop another egg, over 80 total. It’s so incredible to witness this ancient ritual, repeated around our beleagured planet’s beaches since the time of the dinosaurs. We watch the eggs fall, the pile of eggs building up in the bag, feeling the soft skin of her feet pressing the backs of our hands. Soon smaller yolk-less eggs start coming out, and we know it’s almost time to pull the bag out before the turtle starts to cover the nest.  Cynthia and I pull the heavy bag out together and gently drag it up onto the beach behind the turtle. We quickly twist it closed and cover it with cool sand so we can collect the data on the turtle. We stretch the measuring tape across the turtle’s back and call out the numbers to Shawn who records all the data. Fabian reads out the tag numbers on her flippers.

We say goodbye to our beautiful turtle who is covering the empty hole and we promise to take good care of her eggs. Sean and Fabian take turns carrying the 5 kg bag of eggs back to the hatchery. Its not easy work, and hands and arms ache over the 1.5 hour walk back down the dark beach. But now we have a mission, to get these eggs to their new incubating place in the safe hatchery, guarded from marauding poachers. A meteorite streaks across the sky in front of us while we stride down the beach and we joke about how these eggs must be infused with good luck from the lightning that flashed during their appearance. Maybe one of the baby turtles that hatches from our eggs, will be fast as lightning, escaping all the predators, and return to father new baby turtles when he’s fully grown 15 years from now.

Since our arrival:

8 May: 1 nest saved and taken to hatchery where Barb, Phil, Cynthia re-burried it. Poachers got 2 nests

9 May: 2 nests saved, one by Barb and Cynthia and eggs brought to hatchery where Lucy and Simona re-burried 1 clutch of eggs at hatchery, Poachers got 1 nest.

10 May: 2 nests saved, one by Fabian, Sean, Cynthia and Lucy with 88 normal and 20 yolk-less eggs. 1 nest poached.

11 May: 2 nests saved, one with 83 eggs plus 14 yolk-less eggs. No poached nests.

Costa Rica: First clutch saved

Covered in black sand on knees arms and faces, the Costa Rican Biosphere Expeditions team practices digging perfect replicas of sea turtle nests on the beach, to prepare for our shifts guarding the fenced hatchery. We all lie face down on the sand and dig a vertical tube with one arm fully extended, straight down, as far as we can reach. Then we excavate a rounded cavity to one side of the base of the tube, like a boot. The holes we create replicate the holes made by female leatherback turtles, who use their 75 cm hind flippers like a hand, to deftly scoop sand from the bottom of the tube.

Fabian, the lead scientist, let us feel the hole he dug in the sand to test what the perfect example of an egg cavity should be like. Fabian reaches into everyone’s hole and gives people tips for perfecting the shape. “Make your base a little longer and a little wider wider” Fabian suggests to me after testing my first try. Once we perfect our holes and pass Fabian’s checkout test, we sprinkle sand back into the hole, like a mother turtle gently covering the eggs. Tapping the top of the hole down with a fist, we finally graduate turtle nest building class and we wade into the waves to splash black sand off sandy limbs. Barb, Phil and Cynthia laugh as they get knocked around by the strong surf and emerge beaming. But we are still not completely ready to be hatchery guardians.

Fabian points out that the fence around the hatchery keeps out predators such as raccoons or dogs. Each nest is covered by a white basket-like cylinder over the top to stop smaller predators and pests, such as crabs or insect larvae, from attacking the eggs. The baskets covering each nest also corral the emerging baby turtles, so they can’t flipper to the ocean and the citizen scientists can record how many hatchlings emerge from each nest as well as measure 15 of them from each. During their hatchery shift, every hour, guardians peak into each basket to see if a nest might be hatching. If it is, they call the other citizen scientists on the radio so people can come help, because there can be over 80 tiny turtles clambering to escape the confines of the basket. Some lucky hatchery guardians will get to be the proud adoptive parents of a new clutch of eggs, brought to them by other citizen scientists patrolling the beaches looking for turtles laying eggs. They can then employ their newfound skills as a nest cavity excavator.

Carved into the vegetation bordering the beach, the fenced-in hatchery now protects over 7,000 sea turtle eggs. As the nesting season continues, the hatchery will protect over 10,000 eggs, and statistically each year only ONE in 10,0000 baby turtles will survive to reproduce. Each clutch of 80-100 eggs is removed from a natural sea turtle nest and re-burried to incubate in the sand within the guarded hatchery. Citizen scientists will keep watch in the hatchery 24 hours a day for the 9 months of the turtle nesting season. Each nest takes between 55-100 days to hatch depending on temperature. Warmer weather helps the eggs develop more quickly, and during cloudy cool weather, incubation is slower. We hope that hatchlings will emerge while we are here.

Later that day, after a delicious traditional Costa Rican dinner prepared by chef Johanna, we check the schedule written on a whiteboard to see who is on hatchery duty and who on beach patrol that night. Beach patrol shifts last from 2-4 hours depending on if it’s light out or not. Daytime shifts are 2 hours , night shifts are 4 hours. Our citizen scientists cover the 4 hour night shifts this evening, starting at 21:00 and running through the dawn after 06:00. Some people get ready for their upcoming hatchery duty donning long pants and red headlights and others take a nap to wake up in the middle of the night to start their shift.

The next morning, during breakfast, we all chat about how everyone’s evening went. We learned that during the hatchery shift from midnight to 03:00 Phil, Barb and Cynthia were lucky enough to receive a bag filled with pool-ball sized turtle eggs, from citizen scientists who just carried the 6 kg bag for over two hours. Phil started work quickly and dug the long vertical shaft with the boot-shaped hollow for the eggs to rest within. Each of the three guardians took turns placing eggs into the hole, counting each out loud: “….88, 89, 90!” They carefully placed sand over the eggs and marked the new nest with sticks. They tagged the new nest with a number and letter designating its place in the grid of the hatchery. Everyone was  excited that our team helped protect this clutch of 90 eggs from poachers, stopping this particular endangered treasure from being sold on the black-market as snack.

In the afternoon, our crew cut and sewed baskets to protect the nests. Once the handicraft was complete, we ventured to the hatchery and fixed the edges of the new baskets around the tops of the nests buried the previous nights. The first clutch of eggs of our expedition is now safely tucked into its new resting spot in the hatchery. Some day in the next few months, “our” turtles will venture out into the ocean. Perhaps one of ours will be the one in 10,000 that will return to this beach to lay eggs again.

Costa Rica: Straight into beach patrols

The Costa Rican adventure began with the minibus ride from the capital of Jan San José through a thrilling tropical rain storm. As participant Jillian said “when I looked out the windows, I thought it was just like a rainy day at home in the UK, just with tropical vegetation, but when I stepped out into the downpour it was totally different, so warm, such an amazing feeling”.

Costa Rican wildlife is abundant and from the minibus our citizen scientists spotted troops of monkeys and a sloth. The animal spotting continued on the boat ride to the research station, where the tunnel-like trees, arching over the canals hosted birds, more sloths and monkeys. Even freshwater turtles rested on logs in the sun by the sides of the canal.

Soon after arrival training began, so everyone could be prepared for the upcoming starlight beach partrol to search for nesting leatherback turtles. Everyone jumped right in, amongst other things to practice measuring turtle shell length and width on the model turtle.

Later that evening, small groups of our citizen scientists followed researched asisstants and the expedition scientist down the beaches with no lights on. Everyone’s eyes adjusted to the ambient starlight and the glow of bioluminescence from the crashing surf nearby. We scanned the waves lapping the sand for dark mounds that could be turtles preparing to flipper up the sand to the high tide line to dig a nest. “Is that one? Look at how rounded that black shape looks!” Said Phil as he pointed to the white froth of the waves hitting the sand.

“What did you think?” Celine, the research assistant asked as we approached it and she shone a red headlamp on it. We had been fooled by a “tree-turtle”! It was the rounded root-ball of a palm tree with the trunk angling up the beach, which we couldn’t see until we had more light. We got used to being excited by many “log-turtles” rolling in the waves throughout the 2.5 hour patrol, but Celine helped us learn how to refine our search pattern. Most exciting was finding a set of tracks from a turtle that may have nested the previous day. The tracks were so wide and deep it looked like a tractor had driven out of the water towards the forest. The massive leatherbacks, can be close to 2.5 metres long, and more than one person remarked at how unbelievably huge the turtle model was at the research station. So we couldn’t miss one on the beach if it was there, but none of the three search parties were lucky to find a turtle this evening. But we learnt to look for black mounds floating in the surf, to feel the difference in the sand as it got softer underfoot if we crossed a track, and how you feel drunk if you walk through one of the massive holes they dig to burry their eggs in because you stumble into and then out of a deep pit in the sand.

The sand sparkled greenish blue with each step as we walked closer to the water on the way back to the station. Fireflies glowed so brightly they almost ruined our night vision. In the cloudy night sky, lightning flashed in the distance, illuminating the forest edging its way up to the sand. The adventure has only just begun and we are enjoying every step of the way.

Costa Rica: Over 60 turtle nests already in hatchery

I have arrived in San Jose, Costa Rica and enjoyed seeing lush parks and flocks of parrots while walking around the city getting everything ready for your arrival. I had a good meeting with Nicki Wheeler of our partner organisation Latin American Sea Turtles (LAST). She will be meeting you at the hotel on Monday morning and sending you on the minibus to meet scientist Fabian and I for the 40-minute boat ride to the Paquare beach research station. When you arrive there, lunch will be ready and we’ll get started learning everything we need to know about the first evening beach patrol. One part of the research station we will all be excited to visit is the hatchery, where over 60 turtle nests are incubating already, some ready to hatch during our expedition!

The hatchery

Nicki let me know that this year is an El Niño year, which means the ocean is warmer and it’s looking like a peak year for turtle nesting. LAST started work on Paquare in February, relocating turtle nests to the safe hatchery where the eggs take close to 60 days to develop. Our efforts will be well needed as there are many poachers on the beaches this year as well, and we hope to encounter the nesting females and relocate eggs before they are removed by people wanting to sell turtle eggs as food.

Rising global temperatures have made the sand on beaches warmer, which makes turtle eggs develop as mostly females. In order to keep the sand in the hatchery cooler, to ensure even numbers of male and female turtles, LAST has covered the hatchery with shading mesh to cool the sand.

March through July is the prime nesting season for leatherbacks on the east coast of Costa Rica, where we work. The height of the season is right now, so there is a good chance some of you will encounter nesting female turtles during night patrols. Other species such as green and hawksbill turtles also nest on Paquare beach during July to October. Rarer are the Olive Ridley turtles who nest in the region June thought November.

Leatherback turtle
Green turtle
Hawksbill turtle
Olive Ridley turtle

It’s amazing to think of so many species of turtles sharing the same beach, it’s quite lucky that they nest at different times of the year so they are not digging up each other’s nests! The baby turtles will continue to hatch throughout the year, but November through February, the beaches are quiet, and only the site manager of the research station, David, stays to release the last of the hatchlings. You will meet him on Monday as well and hopefully he and Fabian will have great stories to share about hatchlings and nesting females when we arrive.

To prepare for your journey to the research station, carry water, snacks, and a warm shirt in case the air conditioning is cool in the van. For the boat ride keep handy your sun hat, sunglasses and sunscreen as well as a rain jacket. If you brought binoculars or a camera, keep them handy but in a Ziploc in case of rain. This 45-minute boat ride though calm, costal-forest canals is beautiful and you might encounter wildlife such white-faced capuchin monkeys, sloths, caiman crocodiles or toucans.

Looking forward to exploring with you soon!

Costa Rica: First diary entry

Hello Costa Rica expeditioners,

With the trip starting in about a week, it’s a great time for introductions, an overview of the project and what we hope to accomplish with the help of citizen scientists from around the world. I’m Lucy Marcus and I will be your expedition leader for the turtle research trip in Costa Rica. I look forward to returning to this richly abundant costal region of Central America to explore the beaches and help protect the sea turtles nesting there.

Lucy Marcus

I am currently in California organizing my gear and making sure I have all the items listed in the project dossier packing list. Make sure you check off all the items, so you will be comfortable and correctly outfitted as well! It will be great meet you all in Costa Rica and introduce you to our turtle research scientist Fabian Carrasco who you will meet at your arrival to the Paquare beach research station.

Fabian Carrasco

The first person you will meet in Hotel Santo Thomas is Nicki Wheeler, from our local partner organisation Latin American Sea Turtle. Nicki will send you on your way on the mini-bus which transfers to a boat that brings you through the coastal wetlands to the research station. Fabian and I will be awaiting your arrival at the research station where you will get settled in to our cabins before going straight into learning how to measure turtles and collect eggs during our nightly beach patrols.

The 2018 expedition report is now published and explains how successful we were last year. It was fantastic to read that 65 % of the nests were saved due to volunteer effort and that the turtle population in the region we work in is stable. Working with Fabian this year, we will continue with our efforts to protect turtles. As stated in the 2018 report, here is what we will do this year:

  • conduct nightly beach patrols
  • record data on nesting turtles including measurements
  • tag turtles
  • re-locate eggs to a safe hatchery
  • monitor the hatchery
  • release any turtles that hatch
  • exhume nests after hatching
  • work on hatchery material construction
  • do beach clean-ups and marine debris removal

I arrive in Costa Rica on 2 May and will get the research station prepared for the expedition. I will send another message with my local contact details once I am on the ground in Costa Rica.
Once I am at the research station, communication will be minimal as there is limited reception for local mobile phones. Remember that the research station and the region around it does not have any access to WiFi. Local phone reception is only available on the beach near the research station, not in the cabins and a local SIM card is necessary to make mobile phones function correctly (more details are in your dossier). My phone is available for emergencies and for minimal communication with the Biosphere Expeditions HQ. I will share my local number with you once I have arrived in Costa Rica and picked up a SIM myself. Hopefully you can resist the need for frequent international communication with the outside world, and you can enjoy being off-grid for the expedition, soaking up the experience of remote beach isolation.

I imagine you are all reading our expedition material and know that your gear and clothing is essential for this project. It takes some time to make sure we all have dark clothing for night patrols, comfortable shoes for walking many hours on the beach each night, rain gear and a headlamp with a red light. A pack for carrying gear snacks and a large enough water bottle to support your journeys on the beach in hot weather will all come in handy too.

I look forward to meeting all of you and searching for turtles on the beach together. Safe travels and see you in Costa Rica!

Lucy Marcus

Azores: expedition musings

Our time in the Azores has  come to an end for another year, so it is time to reflect on the past month. I know I have said this before, but expeditions offer many things, including difference, difficulty, diversity, discovery and of course data. We all come with varying expectations and often leave with different realisations and experiences. Let’s face it, if we got what we expected, it wouldn’t be an expedition!

This year we have been challenged on many fronts and had several achievements, but before we review the details, let me initially offer some thanks. Firstly to the back office staff at Biosphere Expeditions. There is always a lot of unseen work and preparation for any expedition. Secondly, thanks to Jim (Claudia and Tiago) at Banana Manor, who have been our hosts for the past few weeks – giving us all a second home. I also extend our collective gratitude to Eugenio (and his team at Casa de Cha), and Carey and Pete, who (amongst others) have catered for our variety of dietary needs. I must also not forget our skipper Jairo; who not only took us out to sea, but also ensured we knew the sea state, wind direction, cetacean locations and always got us back to port safely – thanks Jairo. And of course, our enormous collective thanks go to Lisa, our leader in all things scientific. It is always a privilege to share in your world and work with such a passionate field biologist and cetacean scientist.

But my final thanks go to our citizen scientists, who stepped up to the daily challenge of data collection to achieve our collective goals of better understanding the ecology of the cetaceans and turtles of the Azores. Your contribution, attitude and application, sometimes in the face of adversity, and across all aspects of the expedition, has been outstanding. It has been a pleasure to meet and work with you all.

Our data haul this year has been different to others, and would be easy to focus on the fact that sometimes whales have been hard to find – but that is not the only focus of the project. The seeming lack of cetaceans on some days, or the  sea states may have challenged us on occasion, but overall we’ve been able to amass a diverse range of data and information, that without Biosphere Expeditions, wouldn’t have been collected.

In case you have forgotten, here are just some of our highlights:

  • We’ve deployed two teams into the field, comprising 7 different nations
  • We completed multiple days at sea, covering over 700 km of survey transects
  • We’ve collected data on at least 5 different cetacean species and 1 turtle species
  • We’ve recorded orcas for the first time on a Biosphere Expedition
  • We’ve listened to singing humpbacks for the first time in the Azores
  • We completed multiple POPA surveys (Programa de Observação para as Pescas do Açores = Observation Programme for the Fisheries of the Azores)
  • We’ve assisted the local university with their D-Tag research on sperm whales
  • We’ve field tested a cetacean monitoring app and contributed data to Monicet

Of course there is also the data entry, image processing and sorting, and not to mention matching work that has been completed so far. All helps to better understand the puzzle of cetacean patterns in the Azores. Data on absence is as important as that on presence. To truly understand cetaceans movements, their ecological needs, and distributions we need to study them over appropriate scales of space and time.

Field research rarely gives us instant results or fast answers to our bigger questions, but even the encounter rates from this year underscore the value of long-term research – this project has been running for fifteen years. The results from this year’s work will soon become clearer in the expedition report (due out later this year).

So what of the success I mentioned? Success isn’t just dictated by data, and to my mind successful expeditions are defined by experience – that which we bring to it, and that which we gain from it. Personal success is perhaps is influenced by the people you meet, the new experiences you have, the challenges you overcome, or the wildlife you see. This year we have had a fantastic blend of past Biosphereans, past Azores expedition team members, and a healthy dose of first-timers. The teams and the teamwork have been a personal highlight. You’ve all played your part in the success of this year. Your own judgement of success is perhaps most dependent on your own expectations.

We all come on expeditions for different reasons and with different expectations. No matter whether you are a citize scientist, scientist or expedition leader, we all start an expedition with a varying mix of nerves, hope and expectation. We hopefully leave with new experiences, having explored, been enthused, educated, entertained and maybe even enlightened!

If you are truly fortunate, like the cetaceans, you get to return.

Best wishes

Craig Turner
Expedition leader